Christian Colligation of Apologetics Debate Research & Evangelism

"And according to Paul's custom, he went to them, and for three Sabbaths reasoned with them from the Scriptures, explaining and giving evidence that the Christ had to suffer and rise again from the dead, and {saying,} 'This Jesus whom I am proclaiming to you is the Christ.'" Acts 17:2-3

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Perhaps the most basic question is whether there is a personal God that created the universe and continues to have an interest in it. This page provides the classic as well as the latest arguments for the existence of God, including contributions from CADRE members.

General Arguments for the Existence of God
The Cosmological Arguments
The Teleological Arguments
The Ontological Arguments
The Moral Arguments
Plantinga's Warranted Christian Belief
Pascal's Wager
Debates on the Existence of God
The Problem of Evil
The Hiddenness of God
Free Will vs. Determinism

General Arguments for the Existence of God

Articles and essays, including some by CADRE members, making positive cases for the existence of God or countering arguments against God's existence.

The Cosmological Arguments

Articles explaining and defending the varied forms of the cosmological argument.

The Teleological Arguments

Articles explaining and defending the teleological arguments for the existence of God. Also may be characterized as the fine-tuning, intelligent-design, and anthropic arguments.

The Ontological Arguments

Articles explaining and defending this a priori argument for the existence of God.

The Moral Arguments

These arguments basically assert that the existence of moral truth proves the existence of God.

Plantinga's Warranted Christian Belief

After 40 years of studying philosophy, Alvin Plantinga offers an extended and in-depth argument justifying belief in Christianity. We provide articles by Plantinga as well as articles reviewing and regarding his arguments.

Pascal's Wager

The classic argument that belief in God is the rationale choice because of the cost-benefit analysis. Although dismissed by skeptics, these articles defend the utility of Pascal's Wager.

Debates on the Existence of God

Perhaps one of the most debated issues of modern times, this section provides links to online debate transcripts and videos that address the issue of God's existence, including by CADRE members.

The Problem of Evil

If Christians affirm the existence of an all-powerful and loving God, how can they explain the existence of evil in the universe? We provides links to articles, including some by CADRE members, that answer that question.

The Hiddenness of God

If God loves us and our futures depend on our faith in Him, why has He not provided more proof of his existence? Find the answers here.

Free Will vs. Determinism

The question of God's existence necessarily implicates the question of free will. These articles explore the relationship of God's existence to the issue of free will.

General Arguments for the Existence of God

  • 300 Disproofs of God’s Existence
    by J.P. Holding

    Leading internet apologist J.P. Holding spoofs an attempted spoof by atheists of the arguments for the existence of God.

  • Arguments for the Existence of God
    Another introduction page to a site evaluating the arguments for God’s existence. Also explores some preliminary issues, such as the initial probability of God’s existence as well as other arguments for God’s existence, such as the argument from religious experience and the argument from miracles.

  • Arguments for the Existence of God
    by A.J. Hoober

    Summarizes the arguments for the existence of God and concludes that they are sufficient to exclude reasonable doubt though not necessarily enough to prove the “Biblical God.”

  • Does God Exist?
    The introduction page to a site devoted to the issue of God’s existence. Provides overviews and then more detailed articles on the cosmological, design, ontological, and moral arguments for the existence of God.

  • Doxa's God Page
    by CADRE member Metacrock

    Includes 36 arguments for God's existence and responses to atheist arguments.

  • Existence of God: Can Philosophy Prove the Existence of God?
    The primary focus of this site is the philosophical arguments, specifically the ontological argument, the first cause argument, the argument from design, and the moral argument, though some of the historical arguments are also explored.

  • The Existence of God
    from the online Catholic Encyclopedia

    The Catholic Encyclopedia provides a summary of arguments for the existence of God.

  • The Misunderstanding of Theism, an Answer to Andrew Moroz' Sec Web Article
    by CADRE member Perspecuity

    "Moroz’s objections to the Christian concept of God are based not upon a proper consideration of Christian theology, but through a quick skim over a few of the concepts. His attempts to demonstrate the ‘incoherence’ of Christianity fall well short of any reasonable critique."

  • Reasonable Faith
    a William L. Craig site

    The new internet home for William L. Craig. It lists all his articles available online, podcasts, and a very informative weekly Q & A.

  • Reasons to Believe
    Astrophysicist Hugh Ross's website with articles and frequent updates about scientific discoveries and how they support the existence of God.

  • Robert C. Koons: Western Theism
    This site provides 21 lectures by this University of Texas philosopher Robert C. Koon.

  • Still Failing the Bar Exam Or, Another Legal Loopity-Loop; a Response to Kyle Gerkin's "Objection Sustained"
    by James Patrick Holding

    "Here Gerkin displays a fundamental ignorance of what it means to be "omnipotent." Omnipotence does not cover the ability to do that which is logically impossible -- such acts are outside the range of "power" and are not relevant to a doctrine of omnipotence."

  • Theodicy: Answering the Problem of Evil
    a CADRE site

    The problem of evil is perhaps the most commonly voiced objection to the existence of the Christian God. This CADRE page is devoted to answering the question of evil.

  • Twenty Arguments for the Existence of God
    by Peter Kreeft & Ronald K. Tacelli
    Discusses the most common arguments, but also many others, such as the argument from religious experience, the argument from consciousness, and the argument from aesthentic experience.

  • William L. Craig’s Virtual Office: Existence of God Arguments
    A leading Christian philosopher and apologist, this page provides many of Dr. Craig’s articles about the existence of God about various issues related thereto.

The Cosmological Arguments

The Teleological Arguments

  • Evidence for God from Science
    by CADRE member Richard Deem

    This website was started and is maintained by Richard Deem, a micro-biologists who has done research for Hugh Ross's Reason to Believe.

  • Design and the Anthropic Principle
    by Hugh Ross

    "The 'coincidental' values of the constants of physics and the parameters of the universe point . . . to a designer who transcends the dimensions and limits of the physical universe."

  • The Discovery Institute, Center for Science and Culture
    The home of many of the leaders of the intelligent design movement. Full of articles and a blog discussing the evidence for the existence of an intelligent designer.

  • Barrow and Tippler on the Anthropic Principle v. Divine Design
    by William L. Craig

    “Barrow and Tipler's attempt to stave off the inference to divine design by appealing to the Weak Anthropic Principle is demonstrably logically fallacious unless one conjoins to it the metaphysical hypothesis of a World Ensemble. But there is no reason for such a postulate. Their misgivings about the alternative of divine design are shown to be of little significance.”

  • Paley's Formulation of the Teleological Argument
    Excerpts William Paley's Natural Theology. Paley is the grandfather of the teleological argument and his Natural theology was first published in 1800.

  • The Teleological Argument and the Anthropic Principle
    by William L. Craig

    “The discovery during our generation of the so-called anthropic coincidences in the initial conditions of the universe has breathed new life into the teleological argument. Use of the Anthropic Principle to nullify our wonder at these coincidences is logically fallacious unless conjoined with the metaphysical hypothesis of a World Ensemble. There are no reasons to believe that such an Ensemble exists nor that, if it does, it has the properties necessary for the Anthropic Principle to function. Typical objections to the alternative hypothesis of divine design are not probative.”

  • Teleological Arguments for God’s Existence
    from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

    A detached examination of the teleological arguments for the existence of God.

  • In Defense of the Fine-Tuning Design Argument
    by CADRE member James Hannam of Bede's Library

    "We have examined the claim that the laws of physics seem to have been set up so that the conditions for life are possible in our universe. We examined some alternative possibilities but found that at the moment design remains one of the best. Richard Dawkins once told A.J. Ayer that evolution was what allowed him to be an intellectually fulfilled atheist. I would suggest that to truly reach atheist nirvana, Professor Dawkins has a good deal more explaining to do."

  • Richard Collin's Fine-Tuning Website
    Offers in-depth articles on the fine-tuning arguments for the existence of God.

The Ontological Arguments

    The section on Ontological Arguments for the Existence of God has been moved to our Ontological Arguments page.

The Moral Arguments

  • Do We Need God to be Moral?
    by John M. Frame, Prof. of Phil.

    Professor Frame debates a secularists about the necessity of God for ethics and morality. Frame concludes: "Without God, anything is permitted."

  • The Indespinsability of Theological Meta-Ethical Foundations for Morality
    by William L. Craig
    “Theism and naturalism are contrasted with respect to furnishing an adequate foundation for the moral life. It is shown that on a theistic worldview an adequate foundation exists for the affirmation of objective moral values, moral duties, and moral accountability. By contrast, naturalism fails in all three respects. Insofar as we believe that moral values and duties do exist, we therefore have good grounds for believing that God exists. Moreover, a practical argument for believing in God is offered on the basis of moral accountability.”

  • Is it Possible to be Good Without God?
    by CADRE member Christopher Price

    "I see no atheistic alternative or substitute for a transcendent being in developing a coherent, justified moral scheme. Nor do I have much hope that one could be developed. It seems impossible that one could develop a transcendent moral code without recourse to a transcendent source for that moral code."

  • The Moral Argument for Christian Theism
    by Clark H. Pinnock

    "Many excellent arguments have been advanced throughout the years on behalf of Christian theism: the cosmological, the historical, the teleological, and so forth. One of them, the moral argument, by reason of its extreme relevance to the human situation, has a certain advantage over the others. Although like them it supplies grounds for believing in a transcendent, personal God, the moral argument goes further. It addresses itself to a most fundamental question which concerns humanists and Christians alike. Both groups are eager to sustain an ethic or moral obligation to our fellow man. But on what basis does such a noble commitment securely rest? How is it to be sustained, or even explained? The moral dimension of human experience raises very readily the question of God whom Christians believe constitutes the only ground that can support the kind of moral commitment which is needed today."

  • Moral Arguments for the Existence of God
    from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

    A detached evaluation of the varied moral arguments for the existence of God.

  • Moral Arguments for the Existence of God
    by C. Anthony Anderson

    Focuses on C.S. Lewis' articulation of the moral argument, providing objections and replies thereto.

Plantinga's Warranted Christian Belief

Pascal's Wager

  • The Apologetic Methodology of Blaise Pascal
    by Dr. Phil Fernandes

    “[T]he Pascalian apologetic methodology has great potential for contemporary society. For Pascal forces us to look at ourselves in the mirror. He forces us to see ourselves as we are: wretched, miserable people who will all eventually die. Pascal then tugs at our hearts and declares to us that only in Jesus can life have meaning. Only in Jesus can we find satisfaction and forgiveness. Only in Jesus can death, our greatest enemy, be defeated.”

  • Arguments from Pascal’s Wager
    by Peter Kreeft

    A leading Christian philosopher responds to objections to Pascal’s Wager.

  • Blaise Pascal: An Apologist for Our Times
    by Rick Wade of Probe Ministries

    An article exploring Pascal’s broader apologetic arguments.

  • Defending Pascal’s Wager
    by George Atkinson

    Responds to the common objection that Pascal’s Wager cannot tell you which God to believe in.

  • Pascal's Wager
    An entry from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

  • Pascal's Wager-A Different Kind of Cost Benefit Analysis
    by Catez Stevens

Debates on the Existence of God

The Problem of Evil

The Hiddenness of God

  • A Bit of Undigested Beef: Does the Existence of Non-Belief Prove God's Non-Existence?
    by CADRE member William Kesatie

    "Prof. [Theodore] Drange’s [essay “The Argument from Evil and Nonbelief”] raises an interesting challenge to Christianity, but his argument is not particularly compelling or even, as he asserts, “sound”. While he makes a very good case that the Bible teaches that God cares whether people have the necessary beliefs to gain salvation, his argument that God desires that people all, or most all, of the people come to believe Set P as His highest priority is very weak. Given that it is the lynchpin of his argument, the failure to support this argument with solid Biblical evidence rather than inferences from God’s statements as to what should concern us as humans makes his case remarkably weak."

  • Does Divine Hiddenness Justify Atheism?
    by Paul K. Moser
    “An all-loving God would make God’s presence available to humans at God’s appointed time. God’s presence, however, need not exceed the presence of God’s morally serious love or be available apart from morally serious inquiry and seeking. In particular, God’s presence need not include miracles irrelevant to moral transformation toward a character of morally serious love, even though God may use such miracles as attention-getters. An all-loving God can properly make confident knowledge of God’s existence arise simultaneously with filial knowledge of God. Accordingly God is exonerated from the charge of irresponsibly refraining from entertaining signs, so long as God reveals God’s presence to anyone suitably receptive.”

  • Why Isn’t the Evidence Clearer?
    by John A. Bloom

    “Should we expect God to jump through any hoop we set up to please us? Is God so insecure that He needs our approval? Yet some people deal with the Creator of the universe as if He were a dog. But in spite of such attitudes, God provides sufficient evidence for self-centered people.”

  • On the Hiddenness of God
    by Gannon Murphy
    Discusses the “problem” of God’s hiddenness in light of Paul, Luther, Pascal and others. Concludes that it serves to create in us a longing for reunion with God.

  • Coercion and the Hiddenness of God
    by Michael J. Murphy

    “[I]t seems that to preserve the exercise of robust, morally significant free-will, God cannot provide grand-scale, firework displays in an effort to make His existence known. Further, free creatures may hinder attempts by God to reveal Himself on a more individual basis by human defectiveness understood in terms of willful rejection of revelatory evidence. Finally, the fact that God sometimes utilizes justice requires punishment for sins committed results, at least in some cases, in God "hardening of hearts" as a means of punishment for sins provides another explanation for the fact that evidence for God's existence appears to be ambiguous at best.”

Free Will vs. Determinism

"But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear..." 1 Peter 3:15